Natural resources in India

mineral resources in india

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Our environment provides us with a variety of goods and services necessary for our day to day lives. These natural resources include, air, water,
soil, minerals, along with the climate and solar energy, which form the non-living or ‘abiotic’ part of nature. The ‘biotic’ or living parts of nature consists of plants and animals, including microbes. Plants and animals can only survive
as communities of different organisms, all closely linked to each in their own habitat, and requiring specific abiotic conditions. Thus, forests, grasslands, deserts, mountains, rivers, lakes and the marine environment all form habitats
for specialized communities of plants and animals to live in. Interactions between the abiotic aspects of nature and specific living organisms
together form ecosystems of various types. Many of these living organisms are used as our food resources. Others are linked to our food less directly, such as pollinators and dispersers of plants, soil animals like worms, which recycle
nutrients for plant growth, and fungi and termites that break up dead plant material so that micro-organisms can act on the detritus to reform
soil nutrients. History of our global environment: About ten thousand years ago, when mankind changed from a hunter-gatherer, living in wilderness areas. 
such as forests and grasslands, into an agriculturalist and pastoralist, we began to change the environment to suit our own requirements. As our ability to grow food and use domestic animals grew, these ‘natural’ ecosystems were
developed into agricultural land. Most traditional agriculturists depended extensively on rain, streams and rivers for water. Later they began
to use wells to tap underground water sources and to impound water and created irrigated land by building dams. Recently we began to use fertilizers
and pesticides to further boost the production of food from the same amount of land. However we now realize that all this has led to several undesirable changes in our environment. Mankind has been overusing and depleting
natural resources. The over-intensive use of land has been found to exhaust the capability of the ecosystem to support the growing demands of more and more people, all requiring more intensive use of resources. Industrial growth, urbanisation, population growth and the enormous increase in the use of consumer goods, have all put further stresses on the environment. They create great quantities of solid waste. Pollution of air, water and soil have begun to seriously affect human health. In IAS Preparation it is best way to know about you which best ias coaching in lucknow is going to tell you.

Changes in land and resource use: During the last 100 years, a better health care delivery system and an improved nutritional status has led to rapid population growth, especially in the developing countries. This phenomenal rise in human numbers has, in the recent past, placed great demands on the earth’s natural resources. Large
stretches of land such as forests, grasslands and wetlands have been converted into intensive agriculture. Land has been taken for industry and the urban sectors. These changes have brought about dramatic alterations in land-use patterns and rapid disappearance of valuable natural ecosystems. The need for more water, more food, more energy, more consumer goods, is not only the result of a greater population, but also the result of over-utilization of resources by people from the more affluent societies, and the affluent sections of our own.