History

UPSC Mains History Syllabus

 

PAPER – I

 

1. Sources:

  • Archaeological sources.
  • Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources.
  • Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.
  • Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

 

2. Pre-history and Proto-history:

  • Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and

chalcolithic).

 

3. Indus Valley Civilization:

  • Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

 

4. Megalithic Cultures:

  • Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

 

5. Aryans and Vedic Period:

  • Expansions of Aryans in India.
  • Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

 

6. Period of Mahajanapadas:

  • Formation of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.
  • Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.

 

7. Mauryan Empire:

  • Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.
  • Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

 

8. Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):

  • Contact with outside world; growth of urban centers, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

 

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:

  • Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centers; Buddhist centers; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

 

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:

  • Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centers, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

 

11. Regional States during Gupta Era:

  • The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Shaiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

 

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

  • Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

 

13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:

  • Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs – The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
  • “Indian Feudalism”
  • Agrarian economy and urban settlements
  • Trade and commerce
  • Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
  • Condition of women
  • Indian science and technology

 

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:

  • Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
  • Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
  • Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India
  • Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting

 

15. The Thirteenth Century:

  • Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success – Economic, social and cultural consequences
  • Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans – Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban

 

16. The Fourteenth Century:

  • ‘The Khilji Revolution’
  • Alauddin Khilji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures
  • Muhammad Bin Tughlaq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account

 

17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:

  • Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement
  • Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture
  • Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce

 

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:

  • Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zain-ul-Abidin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids
  • The Vijayanagra Empire
  • Lodhis
  • Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun
  • The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration
  • Portuguese Colonial enterprise
  • Bhakti and Sufi Movements

 

19.  The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:

  • Regional cultural specificity – Literary traditions
  • Provincial architecture
  • Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

 

20.  Akbar:

  • Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
  • Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems
  • Rajput policy
  • Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy
  • Court patronage of art and technology

 

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:

  • Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
  • The Empire and the Zamindars
  • Religious policies of Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb
  • Nature of the Mughal State
  • Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
  • The Ahom Kingdom
  • Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

 

22.  Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:

  • Population, agricultural production, craft production
  • Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution – Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems
  • Condition of peasants, condition of women
  • Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth

 

23.  Culture in the Mughal Empire:

  • Persian histories and other literature
  • Hindi and other religious literature
  • Mughal architecture
  • Mughal painting
  • Provincial architecture and painting – Classical music
  • Science and technology

 

24. The Eighteenth Century:

  • Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
  • The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
  • Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas
  • The Maratha fiscal and financial system
  • Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat: 1761
  • State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest

 

PAPER – II

 

1. European Penetration into India:

The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal – The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

2. British Expansion in India:

Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3. Early Structure of the British Raj:

The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:

(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian laborers; Impoverishment of the rural society.

(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialization; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

5. Social and Cultural Developments:

The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.

6. Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas:

Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Faraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7. Indian Response to British Rule:

Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 – Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8.   Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.
 
9.   Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
 
10.  Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.
 
11.  Other strands in the National Movement. The Revolutionaries: Bengal, Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.12.   Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.
 
13.  Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbors (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganization of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.
 
14.    Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in postcolonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.
 
15.     Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of science.
 
16.  Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
(i) Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau
(ii)   Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies

(iii)   Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17. Origins of Modern Politics:

(i)   European States System.

(ii)   American Revolution and the Constitution.

(iii)   French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.

(iv)   American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.

(v)  British Democratic Politics, 1815-1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

18. Industrialization:

(i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society

(ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan

(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

19. Nation-State System:

(i)   Rise of Nationalism in 19th century

(ii)   Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy

(iii)   Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.

20. Imperialism and Colonialism:

(i)   South and South-East Asia

(ii)   Latin America and South Africa

(iii)   Australia

(iv)   Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21.  Revolution and Counter-Revolution:
 
(i) 19th Century European revolutions

(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921

(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany

(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949

22.  World Wars:

(i)   1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications

(ii)   World War I: Causes and consequences

(iii)   World War II: Causes and consequence

23.  The World after World War II:
 
(i) Emergence of two power blocs
 
(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment

(iii) UNO and the global disputes.

24.  Liberation from Colonial Rule:

(i)   Latin America-Bolivar

(ii)   Arab World-Egypt

(iii)   Africa-Apartheid to Democracy

(iv)   South-East Asia-Vietnam

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:

(i)   Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa

26. Unification of Europe:

(i)   Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community

(ii)   Consolidation and Expansion of European Community

(iii)   European Union.

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:

(i)   Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union, 1985-1991

(ii)   Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.

End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.

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